Military tensions on the border are reflected in growing political tensions that have weighed on relations between Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping. The use of firearms on the LAC is strictly regulated in accordance with the 1993, 1996 and 2005 agreements. The 1993 and 1996 agreements also provide that both parties must strictly abide by the NT until a final solution is found to the border issue. In these agreements, India and China committed to clarify and confirm the TNB in order to reach a common understanding of alignment. However, little progress has been made since 2003 in this process. So far, the two sides have only exchanged cards in the central sector, which has led to “differences in perception” in several places. The two countries fought only one war, in 1962, when India suffered a humiliating defeat. Both sides see their disputed border areas as strategic in the event of a new conflict. The area of Bhutan at the Tri-Sikkim-China-Bhutan crossroads, disputed by China, where Bhutan is backed by India, has been kept out of this list, see also in 2017 China-India border dispute in Doklam and Nathu La and Cho La Clashes in Sikkim. In August, India accused China of provoking two military tensions on the border in the space of a week. Both charges were rejected by China, which said the impasse was “entirely” India`s fault. Background: On September 15, Defense Minister Rajnath Singh informed parliament that China had mobilized large numbers of troops and weapons along the Actual Line of Control (LAC) with several areas of friction in eastern Ladakh, including the northern and southern shores of the Pangong Tso (lake).
He said that the accumulation of troops was contrary to the bilateral agreements of 1993 and 1996. The Sino-Indian War of 1962 took place in the two disputed areas. Chinese troops attacked Indian border posts in Ladakh, to the west, and crossed the McMahon Line to the east. In 1967, a brief border dispute occurred in the Sikkim region. In 1987 and 2013, potential conflicts around the two different lines of actual control were successfully defused. A conflict with a Bhutan-controlled area on the border between Bhutan and China was successfully escalated in 2017 following violations by Indian and Chinese troops.  In 2020, several fights broke out, which degenerated into dozens in June 2020.  The border dispute between China and India is an ongoing territorial dispute over the sovereignty of two relatively large areas and several smaller, separate areas between China and India. The first, Aksai Chin, is claimed by China as part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and tibet Autonomous Region and claimed by India as part of the Union Territory of Ladakh; It is a virtually uninhabited high mountain wish in the major regions of Kashmir and Tibet and it is crossed by the Xinjiang-Tibet Highway. The other disputed area is located south of the McMahon Line, formerly known as the North East Frontier Agency and now called Arunachal Pradesh.
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